He was the illegitimate son of Messer Piero Fruosino di Antonio da Vinci, a Florentine notary, and Caterina, a peasant who may have been a slave from the Middle East. Whether it be the cross section of a skull, the structure of a weed, or a study of muscles, he, with his feeling for line and for light and shade, forever transmuted it into life-communicating values. Top Answer. Born in Italy #3. Leonardo da Vinci (də vĭn`chē, Ital. Leonardo da Vinci (April 15, 1452 to May 2, 1519) was a painter, sculptor, architect, inventor, military engineer and draftsman — the epitome of a “Renaissance man.” With a curious mind and keen intellect, da Vinci studied the laws of science and nature, which greatly informed his work. Nationality: Italian born in: Firenze, Tuscany, Italy. rcel.type = 'text/javascript'; This technique is known as sfumato, derived from the Italian word for smoke, fumo. [177] Some of the graves were destroyed in the process, scattering the bones interred there and thereby leaving the whereabouts of Leonardo's remains subject to dispute; a gardener may have even buried some in the corner of the courtyard. After only a year, Leonardo made a list of his misdemeanours, calling him "a thief, a liar, stubborn, and a glutton," after he had made off with money and valuables on at least five occasions and spent a fortune on clothes. Leonardo’s childhood home situated alongside Via di Anchiano, 3 km north of Vinci, in Tuscany, Italy. [45][48][57] In 1482, Leonardo was sent as an ambassador by Lorenzo de' Medici to Ludovico il Moro, who ruled Milan between 1479 and 1499. Having many more such works in his possession, Orazio gifted the volumes to Magenta. Leonardo’s paternal grandmother was named Lucia Zosi Bacchereto (the daughter of Ser Piero di Zoso da Bacchereto). The National Gallery of Art and Sculpture Garden are temporarily closed.Learn more Leonardo has long been regarded as the archetypal Renaissance man, described by the Renaissance biographer Giorgio Vasarias having qualities that "transcended nature" and being "marvellously endowed with beauty, grace and talent in abundance". The ermine plainly carries symbolic meaning, relating either to the sitter, or to Ludovico who belonged to the prestigious Order of the Ermine. Leonardo da Vinci (də vĭn`chē, Ital. [158][159] He continued to contemplate the canalization of Lombardy's plains while in Louis XII's company[75] and of the Loire and its tributaries in the company of Francis I. [161][162] Some of those designs proved successful, whilst others fared less well when tested. [178], It has since been theorized that the folding of the skeleton's right arm over the head may correspond to the paralysis of Leonardo's right hand. [28], Leonardo's early life has been the subject of historical conjecture. Last Supper, wall painting by Leonardo da Vinci, c. 1495–98, after the restoration completed in 1999; in Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan. By the 1490s Leonardo had already been described as a "Divine" painter. Much of his earlier working life was spent in the service of Ludovico il Moro in Milan, and he later worked in Rome, Bologna and Venice. Some scholars have speculated that she may have been a slave, possibly from Turkey or the Middle East. [42] While living in Milan, he studied light from the summit of Monte Rosa. Aries Artist #1. Leonardo was the son of Caterina and Ser Piero da Vinci (Piero Fruosino di Antonio Vinci). Leonardo Da Vinci was not Italian. [19][22][23][24][e] Leonardo had no surname in the modern sense—da Vinci simply meaning "of Vinci"; his full birth name was Lionardo di ser Piero da Vinci,[2][27] meaning "Leonardo, (son) of ser Piero (from) Vinci. He was the illegitimate (born to unmarried parents) son of Ser Piero da Vinci, a prominent notary (a public official who certifies legal documents) of Florence, and a local woman, Caterina. [139] After Melzi's death in 1570, the collection passed to his son, the lawyer Orazio, who initially took little interest in the journals. Leonardo Da Vinci was born on April 14, 1452 to the 25 year old notary Ser Piero and a peasant girl as an illegitimate son in the village of Anchiano near the town of Vinci, Italy. "[133] Massimo Polidoro says that it was the first landscape "not to be the background of some religious scene or a portrait. It is a complex composition, of about 250 x 250 centimetres. read more Innate Talent: Leonardo and Bucky Fuller, as he liked to be called, were both world class inventors. His sexuality has been the subject of satire, analysis, and speculation. [22][58], The third important work of this period is the Virgin of the Rocks, commissioned in Milan for the Confraternity of the Immaculate Conception. [106] While on a journey that took him through Mantua, he drew a portrait of Isabella that appears to have been used to create a painted portrait, now lost. Leonardo was a prolific draughtsman, keeping journals full of small sketches and detailed drawings recording all manner of things that took his attention. https://www.theguardian.com. Credit: Leonardo da Vinci, ca. [5] While his fame initially rested on his achievements as a painter, he also became known for his notebooks, in which he made drawings and notes on science and invention; these involve a variety of subjects including anatomy, astronomy, botany, cartography, painting, and palaeontology. È considerato uno dei più grandi geni dell'umanità. He began a nine-year apprenticeship at the age of 14 to Andrea del Verrocchio, a popular sculptor, painter and goldsmith who was an important figure in the art world of the day. He was named Leonardo because he first started kicking inside his mother’s womb when she was viewing a Leonardo da Vinci painting in a museum. Leonardo’s mother’s ancestry is not completely clear. Wiki User Answered . Other, often meticulous, drawings show studies of drapery. [116][117] The painting is characterised by the pose of the figure with the head turned at a very different angle to the torso, unusual at a date when many portraits were still rigidly in profile. Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci was born on 15 April 1452, in a farmhouse near the village of Anchiano in Tuscany, Italy. Renaissance artist, inventor, polymath, musician, and architect who painted the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper and drew the iconic Vitruvian Man. [75] Scientific writings in his notebook on fossils have been considered as influential on early palaeontology. [179], Houssaye postulated that the unusually large skull was an indicator of Leonardo's intelligence; author Charles Nicholl describes this as a "dubious phrenological deduction. French steak cut from a cow's chest, or brisket. [180] The skull was allegedly presented to Napoleon III before being returned to the Château d'Amboise, where they were re-interred in the chapel of Saint Hubert in 1874. [111], Leonardo first gained attention for his work on the Baptism of Christ, painted in conjunction with Verrocchio. [39] This calm young woman appears to accept her role as the Mother of God, not with resignation but with confidence. He is renowned worldwide for his paintings the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper. Mary is seated on the knee of her mother, St Anne. In 1502, he created a scheme for diverting the flow of the Arno river, a project on which Niccolò Machiavelli also worked. Death Date: 1519. Born on April 15, 1452, in Vinci, Italy, Leonardo da Vinci was the son of a prominent attorney notary and a … [29] The Council of Florence wished Leonardo to return promptly to finish The Battle of Anghiari, but he was given leave at the behest of Louis XII, who considered commissioning the artist to make some portraits. In January 1504, he was part of a committee formed to recommend where Michelangelo's statue of David should be placed. [29][51] Leonardo's earliest known dated work is a 1473 pen-and-ink drawing of the Arno valley,[42] which has been cited as the first "pure" landscape in the Occident. Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci widely known as Leonardo da Vinci was an Italian Renaissance polymath who was born on 15 April 1452 in Anchiano, Italy and died on 2 May 1519 in Clos Lucé, Amboise, France. Birth name Leonardo di Ser Piero Born April 15, 1452(1452-04-15) Vinci, Florence, in present-day Italy ... Died May 2, 1519 (aged 67) Amboise, Indre-et-Loire, in present-day France Nationality Italian Field Many and diverse fields of arts and sciences Movement High Renaissance Works Mona Lisa, The Last Supper, The Vitruvian Man See more Leonardo's innovation was to combine different functions from existing drafts and set them into scenes that illustrated their utility. [29] On his return to Florence in 1500, he and his household were guests of the Servite monks at the monastery of Santissima Annunziata and were provided with a workshop where, according to Vasari, Leonardo created the cartoon of The Virgin and Child with St Anne and St John the Baptist, a work that won such admiration that "men and women, young and old" flocked to see it "as if they were attending a great festival."[67][l]. [112] In both Annunciations, Leonardo used a formal arrangement, like two well-known pictures by Fra Angelico of the same subject, of the Virgin Mary sitting or kneeling to the right of the picture, approached from the left by an angel in profile, with a rich flowing garment, raised wings and bearing a lily. Cite this Page: Citation. Combat of Four Knights. The National Gallery of Art and Sculpture Garden are temporarily closed.Learn more [109], Despite the recent awareness and admiration of Leonardo as a scientist and inventor, for the better part of four hundred years his fame rested on his achievements as a painter. All Rights Reserved. This work is now in the collection of the, The "Grecian profile" has a continuous straight line from forehead to nose-tip, the bridge of the nose being exceptionally high. At the age of 15, Da Vinci was sent by his father to learn at the workshop from the artist Andrea Del Verrocchio. Richter, Antonina Vallentin, Leonardo da Vinci: The Tragic Pursuit of Perfection, (New York: The Viking Press, 1938), 533. Leonardo da Vinci was born on 15 April 1452 near the Tuscan town of Vinci, the illegitimate son of a local lawyer. His profound love of knowledge and research was the keynote of both his artistic and scientific endeavors. In the present era, it is arguably the most famous painting in the world. Painter #2. [45][136], Renaissance humanism recognised no mutually exclusive polarities between the sciences and the arts, and Leonardo's studies in science and engineering are sometimes considered as impressive and innovative as his artistic work. What makes this painting unusual is that there are two obliquely set figures superimposed. Links. ... Leonardo da Vinci Quotes. Vincent van Gogh. Find on Amazon: Leonardo da Vinci. What nationality is Leonardo da vincy? Baldassare Castiglione, author of Il Cortegiano (The Courtier), wrote in 1528: "...Another of the greatest painters in this world looks down on this art in which he is unequalled..."[164] while the biographer known as "Anonimo Gaddiano" wrote, c. 1540: "His genius was so rare and universal that it can be said that nature worked a miracle on his behalf..."[165] Vasari, in the enlarged edition of Lives of the Artists (1568)[166] introduced his chapter on Leonardo with the following words: In the normal course of events many men and women are born with remarkable talents; but occasionally, in a way that transcends nature, a single person is marvellously endowed by Heaven with beauty, grace and talent in such abundance that he leaves other men far behind, all his actions seem inspired and indeed everything he does clearly comes from God rather than from human skill. Leonardo da Vinci Born Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci Apr. Pope Leo X is quoted as saying, "This man will never accomplish anything! That Leonardo joined the guild by this time is deduced from the record of payment made to the Compagnia di San Luca in the company's register, Libro Rosso A, 1472–1520, Accademia di Belle Arti. Everyone acknowledged that this was true of Leonardo da Vinci, an artist of outstanding physical beauty, who displayed infinite grace in everything that he did and who cultivated his genius so brilliantly that all problems he studied he solved with ease. Publisher: J.M. Being frequently visited by Francis, he drew plans for an immense castle town the king intended to erect at Romorantin, and made a mechanical lion, which during a pageant walked toward the king and—upon being struck by a wand—opened its chest to reveal a cluster of lilies. A picture of Leonardo with his mother and maternal grandmother can be seen here. [11] The Last Supper is the most reproduced religious painting of all time[9] and his Vitruvian Man drawing is also regarded as a cultural icon. His full name was Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci. All these qualities come together in his most famous painted works, the Mona Lisa, the Last Supper, and the Virgin of the Rocks. ", It is unknown for what occasion the mechanical lion was made, but it is believed to have greeted the king at his entry into, Identified via its similarity to Leonardo's. It is the first [documented] time where a landscape was drawn just for the sake of it. Nationality: Italy Painter. ... Artists by Nationality. [42][66], Leonardo's most remarkable portrait of this period is the Lady with an Ermine, presumed to be Cecilia Gallerani (c. 1483–1490), lover of Ludovico Sforza. Very little is known about his early life, which has been the subject of historic surmise for many years. He found it difficult to incorporate the prevailing system and theories of bodily humours, but eventually he abandoned these physiological explanations of bodily functions. In the painting Virgin and Child with St. Anne, the composition again picks up the theme of figures in a landscape, which Wasserman describes as "breathtakingly beautiful"[130] and harkens back to the St Jerome picture with the figure set at an oblique angle. [15][16] He made substantial discoveries in anatomy, civil engineering, geology, optics, and hydrodynamics, but he did not publish his findings and they had little to no direct influence on subsequent science. Leonardo da Vinci was born on 15 April 1452 near the Tuscan town of Vinci, the illegitimate son of a local lawyer. One was of a kite coming to his cradle and opening his mouth with its tail; he regarded this as an omen of his writing on the subject. The personal life of Leonardo da Vinci (15 April 1452 – 2 May 1519) has been a subject of interest, inquiry, and speculation since the years immediately following his death. His birth is recorded in the diary of his paternal grandfather Ser Antonio: Between 1493 and 1495, Leonardo listed a woman called Caterina among his dependents in his taxation documents. Its fame rests, in particular, on the elusive smile on the woman's face, its mysterious quality perhaps due to the subtly shadowed corners of the mouth and eyes such that the exact nature of the smile cannot be determined. "[121] Leonardo, instead of using the reliable technique of fresco, had used tempera over a ground that was mainly gesso, resulting in a surface subject to mould and to flaking. [22], By 1472, at the age of 20, Leonardo qualified as a master in the Guild of Saint Luke, the guild of artists and doctors of medicine,[i] but even after his father set him up in his own workshop, his attachment to Verrocchio was such that he continued to collaborate and live with him. Characters and Caricaturas. He is also sometimes credited with the inventions of the parachute, helicopter, and tank. [72] He then spent two years in Florence designing and painting a mural of The Battle of Anghiari for the Signoria,[66] with Michelangelo designing its companion piece, The Battle of Cascina. US writer of the Da Vinci Code. In the 1490s he studied mathematics under Luca Pacioli and prepared a series of drawings of regular solids in a skeletal form to be engraved as plates for Pacioli's book Divina proportione, published in 1509. [44][h], Leonardo was a contemporary of Botticelli, Ghirlandaio and Perugino, who were all slightly older than he was. The other is a much larger work, 217 centimetres (85 in) long. Lightning McQueen's truck sidekick in Cars films. It is a "predella" to go at the base of a larger composition, a painting by Lorenzo di Credi from which it has become separated. He attempted to identify the source of 'emotions' and their expression. [151] According to Arasse, the treatise, which in France went into 62 editions in fifty years, caused Leonardo to be seen as "the precursor of French academic thought on art. A Female with Tied Back Hair and a Bald Male Facing Each Other. His profound love of knowledge and research was the keynote of both his artistic and scientific endeavors. Asked by Wiki User. [77], In 1512, Leonardo was working on plans for an equestrian monument for Gian Giacomo Trivulzio, but this was prevented by an invasion of a confederation of Swiss, Spanish and Venetian forces, which drove the French from Milan. Leonardo, inspired by the story of Medusa, responded with a painting of a monster spitting fire that was so terrifying that his father bought a different shield to give to the peasant and sold Leonardo's to a Florentine art dealer for 100 ducats, who in turn sold it to the Duke of Milan. Born on April 15, 1452, Da Vinci was the son of a very wealthy man, Piero Da Vinci, but his mother, Caterina, was a peasant. Vitruvian Man, however, is on display following a legal battle with its owner, the Gallerie dell'Accademia in Venice. Leonardo's other long-time pupil and companion, Salaì, and his servant Baptista de Vilanis, each received half of Leonardo's vineyards. [135] There are numerous studies of beautiful young men, often associated with Salaì, with the rare and much admired facial feature, the so-called "Grecian profile. This article contains 25 Most Famous Leonardo Da Vinci Paintings and Drawings. Leonardo da Vinci was born in 1452, in the heart of the Renaissance in the heart of Europe. By 1508, Leonardo was back in Milan, living in his own house in Porta Orientale in the parish of Santa Babila. Nationality of short story writer Alice Munro. Similarities between Leonardo's illustrations and drawings from the Middle Ages and from Ancient Greece and Rome, the Chinese and Persian Empires, and Egypt suggest that a large portion of Leonardo's inventions had been conceived before his lifetime. He came from the state of Florence. Piero della Francesca had made a detailed study of perspective,[46] and was the first painter to make a scientific study of light. Italian PM held hostage and murdered in 1978. [42] Leonardo's notes and drawings display an enormous range of interests and preoccupations, some as mundane as lists of groceries and people who owed him money and some as intriguing as designs for wings and shoes for walking on water. Leonardo started his study in the anatomy of the human body under the apprenticeship of Verrocchio, who demanded that his students develop a deep knowledge of the subject. J. Wasserman points out the link between this painting and Leonardo's anatomical studies. [171] Liana Bortolon, writing in 1967, said: "Because of the multiplicity of interests that spurred him to pursue every field of knowledge...Leonardo can be considered, quite rightly, to have been the universal genius par excellence, and with all the disquieting overtones inherent in that term. He is famous for his paintings, but he was also a scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, sculptor, architect, botanist, musician, and a writer . Rio who wrote in 1861: "He towered above all other artists through the strength and the nobility of his talents. The Brothers did not get their painting, however, nor the de Predis their payment, until the next century. [f], Leonardo received an informal education in Latin, geometry and mathematics. Most Popular #1105. [g] Leonardo became an apprentice by the age of 17 and remained in training for seven years. E. M. Forster. This would have surpassed in size the only two large equestrian statues of the Renaissance, Donatello's Gattamelata in Padua and Verrocchio's Bartolomeo Colleoni in Venice, and became known as the Gran Cavallo. His kneeling form takes on a trapezoid shape, with one arm stretched to the outer edge of the painting and his gaze looking in the opposite direction. Eleven of the paintings that Leonardo completed in his lifetime were included. Leonardo was educated in the studio of the renowned Italian painter Andrea del Verrocchio. [38] This was about the time of the death of Verrocchio's master, the great sculptor Donatello. "[170], The interest in Leonardo's genius has continued unabated; experts study and translate his writings, analyse his paintings using scientific techniques, argue over attributions and search for works which have been recorded but never found. When he fled from Milan to Venice in 1499, he found employment as an engineer and devised a system of moveable barricades to protect the city from attack. Crowds still queue to see his best-known artworks, T-shirts still bear his most famous drawing, and writers continue to hail him as a genius while speculating about his private life, as well as about what one so intelligent actually believed in.[42]. August 5, 2016, Leonardo Da Vinci engraving by J. Pofselwhite, published in The Gallery of Portraits with Memoirs encyclopedia, U.K., 1833, photo by Candyman/Bigstock.com, Birth Name: Lionardo di ser Piero da Vinci, Place of Birth: Vinci, Republic of Florence, present-day Italy, Place of Death: Amboise, Kingdom of France. lāōnär`dō dä vēn`chē), 1452–1519, Italian painter, sculptor, architect, musician, engineer, and scientist, b. near Vinci, a hill village in Tuscany.The versatility and creative power of Leonardo mark him as a supreme example of Renaissance genius. [147] Why they were not published during Leonardo's lifetime is unknown. View the list We must be willing to let go of the life we have planned, so as to have the life that is waiting for us. Leonardo da Vinci was an Italian polymath of the High Renaissance who is widely considered one of the most diversely talented individuals ever to have lived. [98] His brothers received land, and his serving woman received a fur-lined cloak. [154], Leonardo also closely observed and recorded the effects of age and of human emotion on the physiology, studying in particular the effects of rage. Vesalius published his work on anatomy and physiology in De humani corporis fabrica in 1543. [m], In 1506, Leonardo was summoned to Milan by Charles II d'Amboise, the acting French governor of the city. [114] Leonardo chose to paint an apocryphal moment of the infancy of Christ when the infant John the Baptist, in protection of an angel, met the Holy Family on the road to Egypt. [172], On the 500th anniversary of Leonardo's death, the Louvre in Paris arranged for the largest ever single exhibit of his work, called Leonardo, between November 2019 and February 2020. News spread of these lost works of Leonardo's, and Orazio retrieved seven of the 13 manuscripts, which he then gave to Pompeo Leoni for publication in two volumes; one of these was the Codex Atlanticus. [50] Leonardo may have been the model for two works by Verrocchio: the bronze statue of David in the Bargello, and the Archangel Raphael in Tobias and the Angel. Each of the sixty paupers were to have been awarded in accord with Leonardo's will. Court records of 1476, when he was aged twenty-four, show that Leonardo and three other young men were charged with sodomy in an incident involving a well-known male prostitute. ... Leonardo da Vinci Quotes. [39][47][48], Much of the painting in Verrocchio's workshop was done by his assistants. "[125][w], Other characteristics of the painting are the unadorned dress, in which the eyes and hands have no competition from other details; the dramatic landscape background, in which the world seems to be in a state of flux; the subdued colouring; and the extremely smooth nature of the painterly technique, employing oils laid on much like tempera, and blended on the surface so that the brushstrokes are indistinguishable. What nationality was Leonardo da Vinci? [179] Art historian Mary Margaret Heaton wrote in 1874 that the height would be appropriate for Leonardo. On 12 August 1519, Leonardo's remains were interred in the Collegiate Church of Saint Florentin at the Château d'Amboise. His birth name – Lionardo di ser Piero da Vinci – means “Leonardo, (son) of ser Piero da Vinci”. The trends in composition were adopted in particular by the Venetian painters Tintoretto and Veronese. var rcel = document.createElement("script"); Links. Leonardo da Vinci was born in a Tuscan hamlet near Vinci. "[169] Art historian Bernard Berenson wrote in 1896: "Leonardo is the one artist of whom it may be said with perfect literalness: Nothing that he touched but turned into a thing of eternal beauty. [143] In many cases a single topic is covered in detail in both words and pictures on a single sheet, together conveying information that would not be lost if the pages were published out of order. For other uses, see. In Cesena in 1502, Leonardo entered the service of Cesare Borgia, the son of Pope Alexander VI, acting as a military architect and engineer and travelling throughout Italy with his patron. Some works have found their way into major collections such as the Royal Library at Windsor Castle, the Louvre, the Biblioteca Nacional de España, the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan, which holds the 12-volume Codex Atlanticus, and the British Library in London, which has put a selection from the Codex Arundel (BL Arundel MS 263) online. Asked by Wiki User. [28] His father had married a 16-year-old girl named Albiera Amadori, who loved Leonardo but died young[29] in 1465 without children. Vasari relates that if Leonardo saw a person with an interesting face he would follow them around all day observing them. ... Artists by Nationality. Academic and Enrichment Curriculum Leonardo da Vinci eK-8 School uses all California and school board adopted district textbooks including Open Court (K-6) and Holt (7-8) English Language Arts Program, MacMillen McGraw Hill Math Italian PM held hostage and murdered in 1978. Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (n. 15 aprilie 1452, Vinci - d. 2 mai 1519, Amboise ), cunoscut sub numele de Leonardo da Vinci, a fost cel mai de seamă reprezentant al Renașterii italiene din perioada de apogeu a acesteia. [123], In 1505 Leonardo was commissioned to paint The Battle of Anghiari in the Salone dei Cinquecento (Hall of the Five Hundred) in the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence. He was the first to define atherosclerosis and liver cirrhosis. [29] He also seems to have remembered some of his childhood observations of water, writing and crossing out the name of his hometown in one of his notebooks on the formation of rivers. var rcds = document.getElementById("rcjsload_b42b6d"); One of these paintings was Saint Jerome in the Wilderness, which Bortolon associates with a difficult period of Leonardo's life, as evidenced in his diary: "I thought I was learning to live; I was only learning to die. Leonardo da Vinci; Portrait by Francesco Melzi: Born: Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci 15 April 1452 Vinci, Republic of Florence (present-day Italy) Died: 2 May 1519 (1519-05-02) (aged 67) Amboise, Kingdom of France: Nationality: Italian: Known for: Art, science: Works As previously mentioned above, Leonardo da Vinci invented a technique that helped softened colours by using a dark glaze around the edge of objects. [81] He also dissected cadavers, making notes for a treatise on vocal cords;[82] these he gave to an official in hopes of regaining the pope's favor, but was unsuccessful. What materials did Leonardo da Vinci used? Answer. [155] He drew the heart and vascular system, the sex organs and other internal organs, making one of the first scientific drawings of a fetus in utero. [156], During his lifetime, Leonardo was also valued as an engineer. Lightning McQueen's truck sidekick in Cars films. [138] During the time that Melzi was ordering the material into chapters for publication, they were examined by a number of anatomists and artists, including Vasari, Cellini and Albrecht Dürer, who made a number of drawings from them. [17], Leonardo was born on 14/15 April 1452[b] in the Tuscan hill town of Vinci, in the lower valley of the Arno river in the territory of the Medici-ruled Republic of Florence. [64] Salaì executed a number of paintings under the name of Andrea Salaì, but although Vasari claims that Leonardo "taught him a great deal about painting,"[65] his work is generally considered to be of less artistic merit than others among Leonardo's pupils, such as Marco d'Oggiono and Boltraffio.