In Archaic times, even the architrave could be relief-decorated on Ionic temples, as demonstrated by the earlier temple of Apollo at Didyma. The columns, with 36 flutings, were executed as columnae caelatae with figural decoration, like those at Ephesos. In Archaic temples, a separate room, the so-called adyton was sometimes included after the naos for this purpose. In the late Hellenistic period, their decreasing financial wealth, along with the progressive incorporation of the Greek world within the Roman state, whose officials and rulers took over as sponsors, led to the end of Greek temple construction. Although of sacred character, their function as a temple can often not be asserted. [53] The peristasis of monumental Doric temples is merely hinted at here; the function as a simple canopy for the shrine of the cult statue is clear. Donated by Antiochus IV Epiphanes, it combined all elements of the Asian/Ionic order with the Corinthian capital. The few Greek temples in the Corinthian order are almost always exceptional in form or ground plan and are initially usually an expression of royal patronage. Au dessus de l’abaque se trouve l’architrave épurée et lisse qui est surmontée d’une frise alternant triglyphes (=rainures verticales) et métopes (=soit lisses ou représentant une scène). Architecture De Basilique .. Enregistrée depuis They were not normally designed with consideration for their surroundings, but formed autonomous structures. The original advert contained all the information necessary to enable a contractor to make a realistic offer for completing the task. greek architecture (visual reconstructions), wood engravings, published in 1893 - temple grec stock illustrations multiple colours of 3d chinese temple gate digital button. This applies, for example, to the Graeco-Parthian and Bactrian temples, or to the Ptolemaic examples, which follow Egyptian tradition. 'dwelling', semantically distinct from Latin templum, "temple") were structures built to house deity statues within Greek sanctuaries in ancient Greek religion. On the long side, the sima, often elaborately decorated, was equipped with water spouts, often in the shape of lions' heads. Le temple était le bâtiment principal et le plus important de la Grèce antique. Buildings housing cult statues in Greek sanctuaries, Introduction of stone architecture: Archaic and Classical, Decline of Greek temple building: Hellenistic period, End of Greek temple construction: Roman Greece, Abandonment and conversion of temples: Late Antiquity, Temples of the different architectural orders, Temple of Artemis, Kerkyra (early 6th century BCE), Late Classical and Hellenistic: changing proportions, Hellenistic Temple of Olympian Zeus, Athens, Distinctive uses of Corinthian temples, influence, Regarding Roman period and financing, using the province of Asia as an example, see, The same basic proportion occurs, less purely, in the. Pronaoi and opisthodomoi were often closed off from the peristasis by wooden barriers or fences. Les cultes consacrés au dieu ou à la déesse sont rendus près du temple sur un autel. Les Athéniens qui ont assisté à des représentations données par les grands maîtres du théâtre grec Sophocle, Eschyle et Euripide ont eu pour sièges des bancs en bois installés sur le flanc sud de lAcropole. This process was certainly under way by the 9th century BCE, and probably started earlier.[3]. The technical possibilities of the western Greeks, which had progressed beyond those in the motherland, permitted many deviations. For example, depictions of the running Nike crowned the Alcmaeonid temple of Apollo at Delphi, and mounted amazons formed the corner akroteria of the temple of Asklepios in Epidauros. [66] The temple of Athena Polias at Priene,[67] already considered in antiquity as the classical example of an Ionic temple, has partially survived. J.C.. La tribu mycénienne va dominer sur la mer Égée entre 1630-1200 avant J.C…. New temples now belonged to the tradition of the Roman temple, which, in spite of the very strong Greek influence on it, aimed for different goals and followed different aesthetic principles (for a comparison, see the other article). Modern scholarship uses the following terms: The term dodekastylos is only used for the 12-column hall at the Didymaion. Greek temples were designed and constructed according to set proportions, mostly determined by the lower diameter of the columns or by the dimensions of the foundation levels. La partie fermée du temple comporte en son cœur le naos (dont le nom latin est cella), qui abrite la statue de la divinité. Another determining design feature was the relationship linking naos and peristasis. The construction of large projects, such as the temple of Apollo at Didyma near Miletus and the Artemision at Sardis did not make much progress. Je vous présente les différents types de plan que l'on peut trouver sur les temples grecs. Smaller scenes are displayed in the low corners of the pediments, e.g. Recessed or otherwise shaded elements, like mutules or triglyph slits could be painted black. The largest such structure was the Olympieion of Akragas, an 8 × 17 columns peripteros, but in many regards an absolutely "un-Greek" structure, equipped with details such as engaged, figural pillars (Telamons), and a peristasis partially closed off by walls. Elongated peristaseis became a determining element. The Heraion of Olympia[43] (c. 600 BCE) exemplifies the transition from wood to stone construction. The main measurement was the foot, varying between 29 and 34 cm from region to region. J.C. TEMPLE IN ANTIS : temple avec deux colonnes à l’entrée entre les murs. Trouvez des photos de banque d’images de haute qualité, que vous ne trouverez nulle part ailleurs. According to ancient sources, Kroisos was one of the sponsors. Their self-aggrandisation, rivalry, desires to stabilise their spheres of influence, as well as the increasing conflict with Rome (partially played out in the field of culture), combined to release much energy into the revival of complex Greek temple architecture. In the original temples, this would have been subject entirely to practical necessities, and always based on axial links between naos walls and columns, but the introduction of stone architecture broke that connection. Le temple n'est pas un lieu de culte mais une demeure divine. Sa forme était simple, il était un prototype de maison carrée résidentiel. This is partially due to the influence of the architect Hermogenes of Priene, who redefined the principles of Ionic temple construction both practically and through theoretical work. In Italy, Paestum, some way south of Naples near what was once the northern limit of Magna Graecia (Greek Italy), has three early Doric temples in a row, amid the mostly Roman ruins of the city. According to the three major orders, a basic distinction can be made between the Doric, the Ionic and the Corinthian temple. There were also temples at extra-urban sites and at major sanctuaries like Olympia and Delphi. About architectural sculpture: M. Oppermann: Retallack, G.J., 2008, "Rocks, views, soils and plants at the temples of ancient Greece". Tholos. Like its precedents, the temple used differentiated column widths in the front, and had a higher number of columns at the back. [41] It appears to be the case that all temples erected within the spheres of influence of Corinth and Argos in the 7th century BCE were Doric peripteroi. [42] The increasing monumentalisation of stone buildings, and the transfer of the wooden roof construction to the level of the geison removed the fixed relationship between the naos and the peristasis. The somewhat controversial practice of anastylosis, or re-erecting fallen materials, has sometimes been used. Especially the ruins of Southern Italy and Sicily were accessible to western travellers quite early in the development of Classical studies, e.g. L’ordre est caractérisé par un chapiteau à échine plate et sans décoration, surmonté d’un abaque carré. Voir plus d'idées sur le thème temple grec, grece, cyclades. Longtemps après la fin du polythéisme grec, l'architecture des temples grecs antiques a été l'une des sources d'inspiration de l'arc… The temple is considered semi-classical, with a plan essentially that of a Greek temple, with a naos, pronaos and an opisthodomos at the back. Near the end of the 7th century BCE, the dimensions of these simple structures were increased considerably. To support the superstructure, two columns were placed between the antae (distyle in antis). The financial needs were covered by income from taxes or special levies, or by the sale of raw materials like silver. Temple of Hera I at Paestum. To clarify ground plan types, the defining terms can be combined, producing terms such as: peripteral double anta temple, prostyle in antis, peripteral amphiprostyle, etc. The temple was considered as one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, which may be justified, considering the efforts involved in its construction. Among the Doric temples, the Peisistratid Olympieion at Athens has a special position. Contrairement à l’ordre dorique, celui-ci est plus élégant et plus travaillé. In the Cyclades, there were early temples entirely built of marble. One of the columns in the opisthodomos remained wooden at least until the 2nd century AD, when Pausanias described it. In its simplest form as a naos, the temple was a simple rectangular shrine with protruding side walls (antae), forming a small porch. The back room of the temple, the opisthodomos, usually served as a storage space for cult equipment. It is rare for scenes to be distributed over several metopes; instead, a general narrative context, usually a battle, is created by the combination of multiple isolated scenes. the west-facing temples of Artemis at Ephesos and at Magnesia on the Maeander, or the north-south oriented temples of Arcadia. [74] Two Ionic columns at the front are framed by two anta walls as in a Greek distyle in antis layout. [45] All parts of this building are bulky and heavy, its columns reach a height of barely five times their bottom diameter and were very closely spaced with an intercolumniation of a single column width. The crepidoma, columns, and architrave were mostly white. Only the unfortunate impact of a Venetian cannonball into the building, then used to store gunpowder, led to the destruction of much of this important temple, more than 2,000 years after it was built. The capitals support the entablature. - temple grec stock illustrations Here, most temple construction took place during the 6th and 5th centuries BCE. Thus, for example, the naos length was sometimes set at 100 feet (30 m) (100 is a sacred number, also known from the hecatomb, a sacrifice of 100 animals), and all further measurements had to be in relation to this number, leading to aesthetically quite unsatisfactory solutions. It seems that the temple had an outside wall with windows or doorways, in a layout similar to that of a Greek encircling row of columns (peripteral design). In, This page was last edited on 12 December 2020, at 20:00. to reverse the system described above and deduce the smaller units from the bigger ones. Already around 600 BCE, the demand of viewability from all sides was applied to the Doric temple, leading to the mirroring of the frontal pronaos by an opisthodomos at the back. The sponsors of Greek temples usually belonged to one of two groups: on the one hand public sponsors, including the bodies and institutions that administrated important sanctuaries; on the other hand influential and affluent private sponsors, especially Hellenistic kings. 2. A door allows the naos to be accessed from the pronaos. This shows a growing adjustment to the proportion and weight of Ionic temples, mirrored by a progressive tendency among Ionic temples to become somewhat heavier. Only three basic colours were used: white, blue and red, occasionally also black. [59] Thus, even at an early point, the axes of the naos walls aligned with the column axes, whereas in Doric architecture, the external wall faces do so. In Sicily the Valle dei Templi near Agrigento has an even larger group, with the main structure of the Temple of Concordia especially well-preserved. A restricted space, the adyton, may be included at the far end of the naos, backing up on the opisthodomos. But in spite of such examples and of the positive conditions produced by the economic upturn and the high degree of technical innovation in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE,[11] Hellenistic religious architecture is mostly represented by a multitude of small temples in antis and prostyle temples, as well as tiny shrines (naiskoi). Early examples probably include the Serapeum of Alexandria and a temple at Hermopolis Magna, both erected by Ptolemaios III. A variant of that type has the opisthodomos at the back of the naos indicated merely by half-columns and shortened antae, so that it can be described as a pseudo-opisthodomos. Here, the architrave corners bore gorgons, surrounded by lions and perhaps other animals. The Artemision was planned as a dipteros, its architect Theodoros had been one of the builders of the Samian Heraion. Le fût est orné généralement de 20 cannelures à arêtes vives. Linteau. J.C. puis en haut relief. The classic solution chosen by Greek architects is the formula "frontal columns : side columns = n : (2n+1)", which can also be used for the number of intercolumniations. Reliefs, ornaments, and pedimental sculptures were executed with a wider variety of colours and nuances. The construction of Corinthian temples became a typical expression of self-confidence and independence. It consists of several layers of squared stone blocks. Its column bays (axis to axis) measured 16 feet (4.9 m), a triglyph + metope 8 feet (2.4 m), a mutulus plus the adjacent space (via) 4 feet (1.2 m), the tile width of the marble roof was 2 feet (0.61 m). If the colonies showed remarkable independence and will to experiment in basic terms, they did so even more in terms of detail. Some famous temples, notably the Parthenon, the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, and the Temple of Asclepius, Epidaurus, had much of the naos floor occupied by a very shallow pool filled with water (Parthenon) or olive oil at Olympia. 40 flutings enriched the complex surface structure of the column shafts. The east and north halls of the Erechtheion, completed in 406 BCE, follow the same succession of elements. For example, innovations regarding the construction of the entablature developed in the west allowed the spanning of much wider spaces than before, leading to some very deep peristaseis and broad naoi. Le plan du temple grec, l’ordre du temple grec. [7] Temple C at Thermos is the first of the hekatompedoi, temples with a length of 100 feet (30 m). A multitude of different ground plans were developed, each of which could be combined with the superstructure in the different orders. The dignity of the central aisle of the naos could be underlined by the use of special elements of design. In recent decades this picture has changed, and scholars now stress the variety of local access rules. Built in the mid 5th century BCE in order to house the gigantic statue of Athena and to advertise to the world the glory of Athens, it still stands majestically on the city’s acropolis. As a result, the naos walls lost their fixed connection with the columns for a long time and could be freely placed within the peristasis. The emphasis on the pronaos already occurred in the slightly older temple of Athena at Tegea, but there it was repeated in the opisthodomos. The basic proportions of the building were determined by the numeric relationship of columns on the front and back to those on the sides. The rectangular wall blocks have usually been carried off for re-use, and some buildings have been destroyed or weakened merely to get the bronze pins linking blocks. Dans lAntiquité, un théâtre de qualité est en fait lune des structures les plus caractéristiques de toute cité grecque de la moindre importance. Les théâtres grecs sont généralement … Its Asian elements and its conception as a dipteros made the temple an exception in Athens. The temple of Apollo at Didyma near Miletus, begun around 540 BCE, was another dipteros with open internal courtyard. This might include many subsidiary buildings, sacred groves or springs, animals dedicated to the deity, and sometimes people who had taken sanctuary from the law, which some temples offered, for example to runaway slaves. The same proportions, in a more abstract form, determine most of the Parthenon, not only in its 8 × 17 column peristasis, but also, reduced to 4:9, in all other basic measurements, including the intercolumniations, the stylobate, the width-height proportion of the entire building, and the geison (here reversed to 9:4).[27]. the size of an average football pitch. Its ground plan of 8 by 17 columns, probably pseudoperipteral, is unusual. Some temples could only be viewed from the threshold. The functions of the temple mainly concentrated on the naos, the "dwelling" of the cult statue. In spite of the immense extra effort entailed in this perfection, the Parthenon, including its sculptural decoration, was completed in the record time of sixteen years (447 to 431 BCE).[29]. Marble sculpture has often been removed to make lime for mortar, and any that has survived has usually been removed to a museum, not always a local one. With very few exceptions, Classical temple construction ceased both in Hellenistic Greece and in the Greek colonies of Magna Graecia. [52] Frontality is a key feature of Ionic temples. E.g., the temple of Zeus at Labraunda had only 6 × 8 columns,[65] the temple of Aphrodite in Samothrace only 6 × 9. Very few temples had an uneven number of columns at the front. L'architecture Grecque Antique Le Monde Grec Temple Grec Lunette Rose Architecture Historique Piscines Design Renaissance Italienne École Des Beaux Arts Urbanisme Louis-Philippe-François Boitte, Temple de la Victoire aptère à Athènes Louis-Philippe-François Boitte, Temple de la Victoire aptère à Athènes, musée d'Orsay. [35] Famous cult images such as the Statue of Zeus at Olympia functioned as significant visitor attractions. Stylistically, they were governed by the regionally specific architectural orders. The Temple of Dionysos at Teos, normally ascribed to Hermogenes, does indeed have intercolumnia measuring 2 1/6 of the lower column diameters.[28]. If they are surrounded by a colonnade, they are known as peripteral tholoi. In the 4th century BCE, a few Doric temples were erected with 6 × 15 or 6 × 14 columns, probably referring to local Archaic predecessors, e.g. With the introduction of stone architecture, the protection of the porticos and the support of the roof construction was moved upwards to the level of the geison, depriving the frieze of its structural function and turning it into an entirely decorative feature. Typiquement, ces styles isolés: 1. distillat; 2. prostyle; 3. amphiprostyle; 4. peripter; 5. diptère; 6. psevdodipter; 7. This 6 × 16 column temple already called for a solution to the Doric corner conflict. Réalisé deux ans avant le Parthénon, le temple surplombe la ville d’Agora. The central one of the three aisles thereby created was often emphasised as the main one. Only in the colonies could the Doric corner conflict be ignored. An additional definition, already used by Vitruvius (IV, 3, 3) is determined by the number of columns at the front. On trouve parfois des palmettes ou des rosaces entre les volutes. the Temple of Zeus in Nemea[50] and that of Athena in Tegea. The elevation of Greek temples is always subdivided in three zones: the crepidoma, the columns and the entablature. In spite of the eight columns on its front, the temple is a pure peripteros, its external naos walls align with the axes of the 2nd and 7th columns. Dédié au dieu de l’artisanat, du travail du métal et du feu, Héphaïstos, le temple s’appelait également Thésée en raison de la conviction qu’il était un sanctuaire héroïque dédié à… Thésée. Curvature and entasis occur from the mid 6th century BCE onwards. The acrolith was another composite form, this time a cost-saving one with a wooden body. For some time, the opisthodomos of the Athenian Parthenon contained the treasury of the Delian League, thus directly protected by the deity. The roofs were crowned by acroteria, originally in the form of elaborately painted clay disks, from the 6th century BCE onwards as fully sculpted figures placed on the corners and ridges of the pediments. L'architecture d'un ancien temple grec est devenu progressivement plus complexe et complétée par de nouveaux éléments aussi longtemps qu'il n'a pas eu une forme ronde. [51] Generally, Doric temples followed a tendency to become lighter in their superstructures. The canonical solution was found fairly soon by the architect Libon of Elis, who erected the Temple of Zeus at Olympia around 460 BCE. La sculpture grecque archaïque. Above it lay the dentil, the Ionic geison and the sima. at Mylasa[84] and, on the middle gymnasium terrace at Pergamon.[85]. Along the coast Selinunte was destroyed about 250 BCE by the Carthaginians and has the tumbled ruins of five temples, of which one has been rebuilt from the original material. [77], The first dateable and well-preserved presence of the Corinthian temple is the Hellenistic rebuilding of the Olympieion of Athens, planned and started between 175–146 BCE. It determines column width to column distance, width to length of the stylobate, and of the naos without antae. Instead of longer antae, there are prostyle colonnades inside the peristasis on the front and back, reflecting Ionic habits. For example, the Athenian Parthenon, first reconsecrated as a church was turned into a mosque after the Ottoman conquest and remained structurally unharmed until the 17th century AD. The Classical proportion, 6 × 13 columns, is taken up by numerous temples, e.g. Néanmoins, le grec a continué à être favorable en Ecosse jusque dans les années 1870 au singulier personnage d’Alexander Thomson, connu sous le nom de “Thomson grec”. The Parthenon[48] maintains the same proportion at a larger scale of 8 × 17 columns, but follows the same principles. The most common area for relief decoration remained the frieze, either as a typical Doric triglyph frieze, with sculpted metopes, or as a continuous frieze on Cycladic and later on Eastern Ionic temples. La colonne repose sur une base ionique (composée d’une plinthe, deux scoties et un tore) ou une base attique (une plinthe, un tore inférieur et une scotie, un tore supérieur). through the addition of ramps or stairs with up to eight steps (at Temple C in Selinus), or a pronaos depth of 3.5 column distances (temple of Apollo at Syracuse)[58] had been become a key principle of design, this was relativised by the broadening of column distances on the long sides, e.g. The elaboration of the temple's external aspects served to stress the dignity of the naos. With the transition to stone architecture around 600 BCE, the order was fully developed; from then on, only details were changed, developed and refined, mostly in the context of solving the challenges posed by the design and construction of monumental temples. the dentil of the Ionic or Corinthian orders, the cornice protrudes notably. Exemple : Temple d'Auguste à Pula (Croatie). Les premiers Grecs arrivés en Grèce furent les Mycéniens, vers 2000 av. It could also hold the temple treasury. [83] Its architectural members are entirely in keeping with the Asian/Ionic canon. Samian column bases were decorated with a sequence of horizontal flutings, but in spite of this playfulness they weighed 1,500 kg a piece. The Maison Carrée at Nîmes (France), from 16 BCE, a typical Roman temple, is a Corinthian hexaystyle pseudoperipteros. Hermogenes, who probably came from Priene, was a deserving successor[according to whom?] 92 sculpted metopes decorate its triglyph frieze: centauromachy, amazonomachy and gigantomachy are its themes. The columns and superstructure (entablature) were wooden, door openings and antae were protected with wooden planks. The rules regarding vertical proportions, especially in the Doric order, also allow for a deduction of the basic design options for the entablature from the same principles. The development of archaeology was crucial in the emergence of Neoclassical architecture. Recherchez parmi des Temple Grec photos et des images libres de droits sur iStock. This ended the structural link between frieze and roof; the structural elements of the latter could now be placed independent of axial relationships. The edicts of Theodosius I and his successors on the throne of the Roman Empire, banning pagan cults, led to the gradual closure of Greek temples, or their conversion into Christian churches. After the reintroduction of stone architecture, the essential elements and forms of each temple, such as the number of columns and of column rows, underwent constant change throughout Greek antiquity. A comparable structure is the monopteros, or cyclostyle which, however, lacks a naos. The peristasis was surrounded by 8 × 15 columns or 7 × 14 intercolumniations, i.e. Above the architrave of the peristasis, there was a figural frieze of 137 m length, depicting the amazonomachy. the Gigantomachy on the temple of Hekate at Lagina, or the Amazonomachy on the temple of Artemis at Magnesia on the Maeander, both from the late 2nd century BCE. L'architecture des temples varie selon la période et le lieu géographique. Depending on the architectural order, a different number of flutings are cut into the column shaft: Doric columns have 18 to 20 flutings, Ionic and Corinthian ones normally have 24. Its responsibilities included the advertising and awarding of individual contracts, the practical supervision of the construction, the inspection and acceptance of completed parts, and the paying of wages. The oldest Doric temple entirely built of stone is represented by the early 6th century BCE Artemis Temple in Kerkyra (modern Corfu). As soon as the Ionic order becomes recognisable in temple architecture, it is increased to monumental sizes. This led to the development of the peripteros, with a frontal pronaos (porch), mirrored by a similar arrangement at the back of the building, the opisthodomos, which became necessary for entirely aesthetic reasons. The complex formed by the naos, pronaos, opisthodomos and possibly the adyton is enclosed on all four sides by the peristasis, usually a single row, rarely a double one, of columns. As a side effect, each preserved building block from the Parthenon, its columns, naos walls or entablature, can be assigned its exact position today. L’ordre est utilisé pour des petits temples avec des colonnades intérieures ou extérieures. The oldest marble architraves of Greek architecture, found at the Artemision, also spanned the widest distances ever achieved in pure stone. Similarités et différences entre les architectures romaine et grecque. Les architectures romaine et grecque sont liées depuis longtemps, en raison des similitudes entre les temples et les autres structures créées par les deux civilisations par les deux peuples. Its surface is carefully smoothed and levelled. Temples were frequently used to store votive offerings. The external walls of the naos are crowned with a figural frieze surrounding the entire naos and depicting the Panathenaic procession as well as the Assembly of the Gods. A similarly direct association is provided by the birth of Athena on the east pediment of the Parthenon, or the struggle for Attica between her and Poseidon on its west pediment. Bronze cult images were less frequent, at least until Hellenistic times.[33]. the Heraion II on Samos. The uppermost level of the crepidoma provides the surface on which the columns and walls are placed; it is called stylobate. The combination of the temple with colonnades (ptera) on all sides posed a new aesthetic challenge for the architects and patrons: the structures had to be built to be viewed from all directions. [37], The costs could be immense. Frequently, the naos is also decorated with architrave and frieze, especially at the front of the pronaos. The 24 flutings of the columns are only indicated by facets in the lower third. Contracts were normally awarded to the competitor offering the most complete service for the cheapest price. L’exemple le plus simple d’un temple grec est le templum in antis, une petite structure rectangulaire abritant la statue du culte. Cette salle est réservé aux personnels du culte. Il prédomine en Asie Mineure et est aussi utilisé en Grèce. In some cases, votive offerings could also be directly affixed to the columns, as is visible e.g. TEMPLE DIPTERE : temple entouré de deux colonnades. This produces a surrounding colonnade, the pteron, which offered shelter to visitors of the sanctuary and room for cult processions. L’art grec: les débuts… Introduction L’architecture monumentale: le temple grec Le plan du temple grec, l’ordre du temple grec La sculpture grecque archaïque Les premiers Grecs arrivés en Grèce furent les Mycéniens, vers 2000 av. In the Hellenistic kingdoms of Southwest Asia and of North Africa, buildings erected to fulfil the functions of a temple often continued to follow the local traditions. The temple was burnt down by Herostratos in 356 BCE and reerected soon thereafter. Not one block of the building, not a single architrave or frieze element could be hewn as a simple rectilinear block. Un temple grec est la figure la plus représentative de la culture de la Grèce antique.